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What is Cardiac Asthma? All You Need To Know

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cardiac asthma

Cardiac asthma is not asthma occurring in a person with heart disease. These are in fact respiratory manifestations of cardiac decompensation, suggestive of the symptoms of an asthma attack, occurring in people without a history of asthma or allergy. 

What is cardiac asthma?

Cardiac asthma is a type of asthma related to the heart. If the left side of the heart is weakened, it can no longer pump enough oxygen-rich blood into the circulation and thus into the organs and muscles. This in turn leads to blood congestion in the lungs and less resilience. The result: physical weakness (and the associated low resilience), tiredness and fatigue, shortness of breath, anxiety and coughing (also called “cardiac cough”).

When blood backs up in the lungs, the liquid blood components – such as water – are pressed into the lungs. This accumulation of water can cause pulmonary edema (also called water or congestive lung), which is accompanied by shortness of breath (dyspnea), rattling breathing and/or sputum for the affected person. The shortness of breath can be so severe that the patient becomes restless and is afraid of suffocating.

Differences between cardiac asthma and bronchial asthma

Bronchial asthma and cardiac asthma share a number of symptoms that can complicate a differential diagnosis.

These symptoms are:

  • Dyspnea (difficult and disturbed breathing);
  • Hissing, wheezing and whistling when breathing;
  • cough with foamy sputum;
  • cold sweating and cyanosis (bluish discoloration of the skin).

Symptoms of cardiac asthma

If the term cardiac asthma has been used in the past, it is because its symptoms are close to those of an asthma attack:

  • Breathing difficulties;
  • Shortness of breath;
  • Cough;
  • Expiratory wheezing;
  • Bronchial hyperreactivity;
  • Orthopnea (breathing difficulty when lying down, improved when sitting or standing).

They occur in a patient in left heart failure in which the heart tires due to an infection or excessive physical effort. The left ventricle then fails to expel all of the blood it receives into the aorta, which will therefore accumulate upstream in the left atrium and the pulmonary veins, causing lung edema , a reduction of the volume of circulating air and respiratory discomfort which manifests itself in symptoms similar to those of an asthma attack.

How is the diagnosis made? 

Breathing  suddenly becomes wheezy and associated with shortness of breath  in an elderly person who has never been asthmatic or allergic should immediately suggest left heart failure.  It is then necessary to consult quickly. The attending physician refers you to a cardiologist who , in addition to his questioning and  clinical examination, prescribes additional tests: 

  • blood tests, 
  • electrocardiogram, 
  • chest x-ray, 
  • electrocardiography. 

Treatment of cardiac asthma

The treatment of cardiac asthma is primarily based on that of heart failure which is very often the cause. The goal is to remove water from the lungs to prevent pulmonary edema ,” explains Dr. Assyag. Acute pulmonary edema is a therapeutic emergency that must be treated as quickly as possible by initiating a diuretic infusion.

Taking a bronchodilator by a patient believing they are the victim of an asthma attack when they are in fact experiencing cardiac decompensation can be fatal, continues the specialist. Bronchodilators speed up the heart and may worsen decompensation. But for cardiac asthma, it’s important to calm the heart, slow it down, and remove water from the lungs instead.

Living with cardiac asthma 

Here again, to live well with cardiac asthma, it is mainly a matter of monitoring your heart failure. Some precautions are therefore in order: 

  • Limit your fluid intake, you should not exceed 2L per day (food and ice cubes included); 
  • Adopt a low-salt diet; 
  • You must have a healthy, and balanced  diet;
  • Stop smoking and reduce your alcohol consumption; 
  • Have regular physical activity, adapted to your state of health, ask your doctor for advice. 

When should you see the doctor?

If shortness of breath, or wheezing persists, a doctor should clarify the cause. The same applies if you experience a racing heart, dizziness or a general feeling of weakness without physical exertion or overexertion. A visit to the doctor is particularly urgent if pathological, usually rattling breathing noises are noticed or if foamy sputum appears. If you feel like you are suffocating, you must call an emergency doctor immediately , who can diagnose cardiac asthma and, if necessary, treat it on site.

Immediate medical clarification is also necessary if you have existing heart failure or another disease of the cardiovascular system, metabolism or immune system. People who are overweight, smoke or consume excessive amounts of alcohol should speak to their family doctor if they have these symptoms.

If breathing difficulties or sputum occur as a result of overexertion or a flu-like infection, a medical examination is also necessary. Once diagnosed, cardiac asthma symptoms can be easily treated. In the case of chronic disorder, regular medical check up may be necessary.

FAQs

How to treat severe asthma?

In severe asthma, treatment with anti-IgE antibodies will be administered, in cases where the IgE level is high. “This is a heavy treatment, but effective,” emphasizes the pulmonologist.

What is allergic asthma?

This asthma is a pathology linked to an allergic phenomenon, as its name suggests. “ There is an alteration of the immune response, which becomes excessive in the face of various antigens ,” specifies the pulmonologist. 

Can an asthma attack be serious?

Yes, an asthma attack can be fatal. A person can die from an untreated asthma attack; fortunately, many patients know how to react in the event of an attack. It is necessary to train patients and those around them to react adequately (take their medication and call the 15 in severe cases) ,” advises the doctor. 

What are the symptoms of an asthma attack?

  • A cough
  • Breathing difficulty
  • A whistling sound of breathing
  • Shortness of breath
  • Even asphyxiation

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What causes triple eyelid? How is it harmful? Complete Guidelines

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triple eyelid

When talking about eyelid problems, I’m sure that most people think of single eyelid problems or double eyelid problems because it is a problem that is talked about the most on social media. But in reality, “Three-layer eyelid problem” is another common problem as well, it can happen on one or both eyelids. If anyone is wondering if they are facing the problem of triple eyelids or not, try observing yourself and find out what kind of condition triple eyelids are, what causes triple eyelids, what the negative effects are, and how to fix them.

What is a triple eyelid? How is it harmful?

Triple Eyelid, or the condition of having three layers of eyelids, can be caused by various factors. It is often a result of excess upper eyelid skin and fat that becomes thinner with age. Additionally, weak muscles that open the eyes can also contribute to this condition. Initially, the occurrence of triple eyelids may be temporary and sporadic. Some days, there may be double eyelids, while on other days, there could be three eyelids. Over time, the eyelid may permanently have three or more layers. Apart from making eye makeup application more challenging, this condition can also impact one’s confidence. Some reports suggest that it might be hazardous as it obstructs vision. Moreover, it can potentially lead to eyelid inflammation or infection.

What causes triple eyelids?

Since everyone has a chance of experiencing triple eyelid problems, it is important to understand that they can be caused by various factors such as age, body, and personal behavior.

Increasing age

Third eyelids are caused by old age. They are considered the main cause of triple eyelid problems because, naturally, as we age, the fat in the eye sockets decreases. Subcutaneous fat decreases, the collagen layer becomes thinner, along with the problem of sagging skin. This causes the eye sockets to become deep, the eyes to droop, and folds to be created on the eyelids, resulting in an additional layer or multiple eyelids.

The amount of fat and the elasticity of the skin around the eyes

As you already know, fat is an important component that makes the skin flexible and firm. However, when the amount of fat under the eyelid skin or around the eye socket decreases, it will result in deep eye sockets, sunken eyes, and eventually triple eyelids.

Eye muscle weakness

Triple eyelids can be caused by weakened eye muscles or eyelid ptosis, which is a result of a condition in which the muscles in the eyelid work less than normal. The eyelid sags, covering the dark circle of the eye by more than 2 millimeters, causing folds in the eyelid that appear as more than two eyelids.

Rapid weight loss

Third eyelids are caused by weight loss. This mostly happens to people who exercise heavily or exercise in the wrong way, reducing the amount of fat in the body and face quickly. As a result, the eye sockets become deeper and the eyelids increase.

Previous Double Eyelid Procedure

People who have a history of double eyelid surgery are more likely to develop triple eyelid problems later than those who have never had double eyelid surgery. Three-layered eyelids are caused by poor management in various steps, such as not adding additional fat to the eyelid area, removing too much fat or tissue, or not completely removing the membrane from the eyelid. This causes both eyes to be uneven and eventually leads to a triple eyelid problem.

Other factors

In addition to having three eyelids caused by aging and the loss of fat in the skin, improper double eyelid surgery can also contribute to the issue. Genetic factors may also play a role, with the mixed-race group having a higher likelihood of developing triple eyelids due to their deep eye socket structure. Additionally, certain routine behaviors, such as frequent eye rubbing, wearing contact lenses, and regularly applying double eyelid stickers, can weaken the eyelids and lead to fat loss, increasing the likelihood of triple eyelid problems.

Characteristics of three layers of eyes

A beautiful eyelid usually matches the outer corner of the eye, with both eyelids being equal without extra folds. But those with triple eyelid problems may have an extra eyelid layer, giving the appearance of three or more eyelids. This can cause the eye sockets to appear deep, puffy, or droopy, necessitating eyebrow lifting to help. Additionally, one may notice more forehead wrinkles than normal, which can make you look tired and older than your age.

Single triple eyelid

If you say that you have three eyelids on one side, many people may not believe it because there are two eyes. But if there is an uneven reduction of fat around the eyes, there is a chance of single-sided triple eyelids and uneven eyelids, which are mostly found in the elderly group. People with weak eye-opening muscles, together with the unequal size of the two sides of the face, make the side with weaker muscles fall before the other side. In addition, it is also caused by the eyelid falling off on one side. Weakness in the muscles that open the eyes from rubbing the eyes or wearing contact lenses.

How to treat triple eyelid disease

Third eyelid problems can be caused by various factors and can be corrected to return the eyelids to normal. The selection of a method for correcting triple eyelid surgery depends on the doctor’s discretion, considering the characteristics of the triple eyelids, the brow bone, the depth of the eyelid, and the convexity of facial features, as well as the appearance of the eyelids. The following are popular methods of treatment:

Filler injection

In cases where triple eyelid problems are caused by age factors, filler injections can be used to lift the eyelids up naturally. But you should inject quickly as soon as you see a faint line. It can help prevent the occurrence of triple eyelid problems. For filler injections to correct triple eyelid problems and deep eye sockets, filler is added gradually until the person with the problem is satisfied.

Strength

No surgery, no scars, no long recovery period; it can be fixed with injections to break it up if you are not satisfied with the results.

Weakness

It is a temporary treatment; more injections are necessary when the decomposition period is reached. If the injection is administered around the eye area, its effects will last approximately 6-9 months. Severe complications from the injection, in addition to skin darkening, include the main problem of the medication traveling into the veins, causing immediate and irreversible blindness, which cannot be treated.

Fat injection

In the case of triple eyelid problems caused by the loss of fat around the eyes, which, in addition to causing three eyelids, also results in problems with deep eye sockets and sunken eyes, fat injections can be used to fill the eyelids, in order for them to return to normal.

Strength

It involves taking the fat from the affected person’s own body, blending it, and injecting it into the eyelid area, therefore making it safe. The eyelids appear very natural, smooth, and do not look too hard. There are also no wounds, no need to recuperate because it is not a surgical treatment.

Weakness

It is necessary to inject with a skilled doctor, because if the dosage is not properly determined, it may cause complications later. Due to shallow skin, it can cause lumps or curls. Moreover, it is difficult to fix, requiring one to wait for the fat to disappear by itself or undergo surgery to remove it.

Triple eyelid surgery

Surgery is a method of treating triple eyelid problems caused by all causes, which not only solves the problem of three eyelids but is also suitable for people who want to enhance double eyelids. For corrective surgery, it can be performed in several ways.

One method involves using sutures or cutting without opening the wound, popularly known as a 3-point suture. This surgery utilizes sutures to hold the skin in the desired position to create an eyelid.

Another approach is surgery with an open wound, which entails making an incision on the eyelid to remove tissue and sew the eyelid for aesthetic improvement. It’s suitable for individuals with excessive skin leading to the formation of three layers, requiring some tissue to be excised.

Minimally invasive surgery involves a small incision approximately 1 centimeter in size to remove excess tissue and sew the eyelid, similar to an open wound but with faster healing due to the smaller incision.

In cases where weak eye-opening muscles are present, surgery to pull the muscle and facilitate eye opening is always necessary.

Strength

Solving the triple eyelid problem with surgery is more permanent than other methods. However, because it is a surgical method, it takes longer to recover and it is important that it must be done with a skilled doctor.

Weakness

If you choose a clinic that is not up to standard, the results from surgery will be unsatisfactory, deformed, or cause various risks.

Eyebrow lift surgery

Eyebrow lift surgery is another surgical procedure performed on the area above the eyebrows to raise them and solve the problem of sagging skin around the eyes. It helps make the skin smoother and tighter, reducing wrinkles on the eyelids and enhancing the visibility of the eyelids.

Strength

Helps balance the distance between the eyebrows and eyes and make you look more youthful.

Weakness

It doesn’t directly help solve the triple eyelid problem. In this case, there are still more movies. and does not correct the weakness of the eye-opening muscles

Radio frequency (RF) therapy

Radiofrequency (RF) treatment involves using a specific machine to transmit radio frequency heat of approximately 42 – 45 degrees Celsius for 5 minutes to the skin layer. To stimulate oxygen and nutrients to the skin in that area better. Including stimulating the creation of collagen under the skin. Makes the problem of wrinkles and sagging eyelid skin firm again.

Strength

After doing this, there’s no need to recover. It can solve many problems at once, including bags under the eyes, dark circles, wrinkles around the eyes. and sagging skin

Weakness

It doesn’t directly help solve the triple eyelid problem and you have to do this many times to see results.

Preparation first and take care of yourself after surgery

For people who want to solve the problem of triple eyelid problems caused by various causes, a permanent solution is recommended, with no need to worry about repeating it later. It is recommended to choose surgical treatment, but this treatment must be carried out by a specialist doctor with expertise. For treatment efficiency, you should prepare yourself before and after surgery to correct triple eyelid problems.

Preparation before triple eyelid correction surgery

The reason for preparing before undergoing eyelid correction surgery is in addition to optimizing the results after surgery. It also reduces the risk during surgery. For preparation before surgery, the steps are as follows.

  • You should inform about health information, congenital diseases, and medications you are taking. and drug allergy history to the case doctor. To plan treatment and assess risks.
  • You should refrain from taking medicines that cause blood to clot for at least 1 week, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, but if you must take them, you should always consult with the doctor in the case first.
  • You should refrain from taking herbs, dietary supplements, and vitamins for at least 2 weeks.
  • You should refrain from smoking. Avoid alcoholic beverages for at least 2 weeks.
  • Before the day of surgery, you should wash your hair thoroughly. On the day of surgery, make-up and false eyelashes are prohibited.

Taking care of yourself after triple eyelid correction surgery

After surgery to correct three eyelids, follow your doctor’s instructions carefully to reduce swelling and infection. For guidelines for taking care of yourself as follows:

  • The wound should be cleaned 1–2 times per day until 3 days after the stitches are removed and the medicine prescribed by the doctor must be taken completely.
  • During the first 3 days, the surgical wound will have swelling and bruising. You should use a cold compress. And do not allow the wound to come into contact with water to reduce the chance of infection.
  • On the 4th day, you should start applying warm compresses in the morning and evening to reduce swelling and bruising and stimulate blood circulation.
  • During the first week, you should sleep with an elevated pillow to reduce inflammation.
  • During the first 2 weeks you should refrain from smoking. and wearing contact lenses
  • During one month, you should not eat junk food, fermented foods, and alcoholic beverages.

How to prevent triple eyelid formation

From the data, it can be observed that the primary cause of triple eyelids is the loss of fat around the eyes as people age. While this is unavoidable, it can be effectively prevented and slowed down in the following ways:

  • You should get enough sleep. Take care of your physical and mental health.
  • Drinking alcohol and smoking should be avoided.
  • You should moisturize your eyelids with eyelid cream and avoid direct exposure to sunlight or UV rays.

Advantages of triple eyelid correction

Although the triple eyelid problem does not affect daily life, fixing triple eyelids immediately from the beginning of symptoms will help with the problem.

  • When the eyelids and eyes return to being beautiful as before Increase your self-confidence.
  • Makes it easier to put on makeup. No need to waste time on eye makeup.
  • Reduce the risk of eyelid inflammation and vision problems.

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What is Macular Degeneration? Early Warning Signs

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Macular Degeneration

Macular degeneration, which impairs the central vision function of the eye, which is important for clear vision, causes problems in reading and writing, and affects the patient’s quality of life, occurs as age progresses. Among the early precautions that can be taken in this disease, which carries the risk of losing the eye, it is of great importance not to look directly at the sun. ‘Age-Related Macular Degeneration’, popularly known as macular degeneration, occurs with advancing age, as its name suggests. It is seen in two different types and the navigational situation varies depending on the type.

What is macular degeneration?

We have a general visual field. We can define this as a circular area on a plane. In addition, we also have a central visual field located in the center of this circle, which provides us with clear vision. The central field of vision is important for performing delicate and delicate work. In our circular visual field, visual sensitivity decreases as we move from the center to the periphery. But while peripheral vision is not important in providing clear vision, it is sensitive to motion. Therefore, peripheral vision is also an important function of the eye. For example; Peripheral vision is required when driving a car or checking to see if anything is passing us. But the main thing for our eyes is to see the center. The macula provides 90 percent of our central vision. When our macula begins to deteriorate due to age, our central vision deteriorates.

What symptoms does the disease appear with?

Put a black dot or something in the center, if there is a shift in the lines next to it when looking at this central dot, this is among the signs that the disease has begun. The patient’s complaints are usually as follows; “When I look at someone outside, I can see clearly, but it seems like there is a darkness or a cloud in my eyes” or “When I read a text, the edges of the text slide or when I solve a puzzle, it feels like the edges are not straight.” There are two types of this disease: dry type and wet type. Both have positive and negative aspects compared to each other. But both types, unfortunately, are diseases that should be taken seriously, as they significantly reduce visual sensitivity.

What are the differences between these two types?

The dry type progresses slowly and impairs our vision in the long term. The wet type is a type that we can intervene in, but it progresses very quickly. In the past, when we detected this disease, we would give the patient vitamins and send them away. However, recently drugs that we call anti-VEG agents have been found. For treatment purposes, we inject these drugs into the white part of the eye with a very thin needle.

Of course, this process scares people. Because saying ‘we will put a needle into your eye and give you medicine’ may seem frightening to the patient at first. However, after the first procedure is performed, patients understand that the event is not scary and their treatment continues. Generally, four injections a year, three months apart, are sufficient. However, depending on the condition of the disease, we may increase the number of cures to six or even ten. The process is completed in less than a minute. Despite this, we perform the procedure under operating room conditions to prevent the eye from getting infected.

What are the risk factors of the disease?

First of all, age is an important risk. The incidence of the disease increases over the age of 60. Apart from these, exposure to sunlight and looking at the sun with the naked eye are also important risk factors. For this reason, sailors, pilots and agricultural workers can be considered in the risky occupational group. In addition, high blood pressure also triggers the disease. It can be seen at a higher rate in people with light-coloured eyes, those with hyperopia and smokers.

So, what is the incidence of macular degeneration?

As human life increases, the incidence increases. It is seen in 25 percent of people over the age of 70. This means that it is seen in one in four people on average. Almost 100 percent of those over the age of 90. This is not a disorder unique to us, it can be seen in all societies. Unfortunately, there is a possibility of losing the eye.

What method do you use during the diagnosis phase?

During the examination, we check the patient’s vision, measure the eye pressure, perform the examination with a biomicroscope, and then dilate the pupil with the help of a drop. There is a device called OCT, a type of tomography. With this, we examine the structure of the eye. We also perform eye angiography to check whether there is a circulatory disorder in the eye vessels. In this way, we can determine whether there is a yellow spot in the eye and also distinguish its type (wet-dry).

So, isn’t it possible to cure the disease completely?

Unfortunately, this is not possible with today’s medical facilities. But genetics is one of the rapidly developing fields of medicine. So much so that very important progress has been made in gene therapy based on your DNA helix. It is believed that an important step will be taken in the treatment of macular degeneration after the studies become more mature. As I mentioned before, dry type is a slowly progressive disease. At this stage, no treatment is applied. It is necessary to monitor patients closely. However, when age begins to change into type, we intervene. The most important treatment for wet type is intraocular injections. However, it is also important to eliminate risk factors.

Therefore, we advise patients to control high blood pressure, quit smoking, and protect their eyes from the sun. We recommend taking vitamins rich in omega 3 and lutein. The frequency of injection is completely related to the course of the disease.

In such a case, isn’t eye transplantation possible?

No. Think of the eye like a camera or camera lens. Cornea (i.e. lens) transplantation can be performed. When his lens breaks down, he undergoes cataract surgery and is replaced with an artificial one. You can think of the macula as the heart of the camera, that is, the film layer. It is not possible to change it with today’s possibilities.

Are there things we can do now to avoid this problem when we get older?

Avoid looking directly at the sun and wear sunglasses that protect not only the front of your eyes but also the sides. Most importantly, be sure to have routine eye examinations.

How often should we have a routine eye examination?

Routine eye examination is recommended once a year. During an eye examination, we do not just evaluate the person’s vision. We look at eye pressure, the likelihood of developing eye pressure increases after the age of 40. Genetic predisposition is important in this regard. We check to see if the patient has a systemic disease in addition to eye diseases. Because it is possible to detect some systemic diseases such as hypertension and diabetes by fundus examination. If there is such a situation, we definitely direct it to the relevant branches.

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