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Home Improvement

Robotic Pool Cleaners: how they work and their advantages



robotic pool cleaners

Now that you’ve acquired a house with a swimming pool or are completing the installation of your brand-new pool in your garden, the necessity for a robotic pool cleaner becomes evident. As you delve into the various cleaning options for your pool, you’ll find that robotic pool cleaners offer an efficient solution. These innovative devices are designed not only to uphold impeccable hygiene standards for your pool water but also to meticulously care for the pool’s bottom, walls, and water line.

What are the advantages of robotic pool cleaners

In order to fully understand the subject, we will first see, in detail, the mode of operation of the autonomous pump integrated into your swimming pool, then discover the advantages of investing in this famous swimming robotic pool cleaners. It will, without a doubt, be your partner for many years.

What is an electric pool robot? It is in fact a robot equipped with one or more brushes which travels the walls and the bottom of the swimming pool, autonomously. Through its successive passages, it also accesses the nooks and crannies of the swimming pool and rids it of any deposits on its walls . Its suction and brushing system cleans the pool perfectly and contributes both to the conservation of the coating (liner for example) and to the hygiene of the pool itself. We will see, a little later, that there are also hydraulic robots operating without a motor, but dependent on the filtration system.

Discover the role of your filtration system in the maintenance of your swimming pool

A cleaning robot alone is not effective. It complements your filtration system. This is why every swimming pool comes with a complete filtration system  that cleans and filters the pool water permanently. Its role is therefore to recover all the fine impurities present in the water and to put clean water back into circulation.

The filtration system

The pump is installed outside the swimming pool, either directly on the side, if the swimming pool is small, or in a converted room where the maintenance products, the broom and the landing net will be stored, without forgetting our famous robot electric pool  cleaning.

This pump, equipped with an electric motor, is the heart of the swimming pool cleaning circuit. The water is suctioned from different places in the pool:

  • on the surface, by skimmers which are vents located at the level of the water line;
  • at the bottom, through a drain and a broom socket, which collect the water by suction.

What is the role of a swimming pool filtration pump?

The water sucked in by the pump passes through a sand filter which stops the largest impurities. This water is then reinjected into the basin. The aim of this filtering is to remove suspended matter , but also to ensure regular mixing of the water allowing the treatment products to be uniformly present in the bathing water.

The water is therefore stirred regularly by a turbine then is sucked up, filtered and discharged into skimmers located opposite those which suck up the water. This hydraulic network thus ensures endless circulation of water which can be treated or heated before returning to the pool.

This operation therefore does not take into account the dirt and impurities which may be deposited along the walls of the swimming pool . This is where your cleaning robot comes in.

How the robot works and the benefits of automated pool cleaning

As you will have understood, the robot cleaner works in parallel with your filtration system.

Difference between a robot vacuum cleaner and an electric cleaning robot

There are two types of robots to clean your pool:

  • the hydraulic robot which operates thanks to the swimming pool pump;
  • the electric robot with independent motor.

How does the hydraulic robot work to clean your swimming pool?

Its operation is quite simple: the robot must work in conjunction with the swimming pool’s hydraulic pump. It is therefore autonomous without really being so. It plugs either into a special socket installed in one of the skimmers, or into the broom socket located on the side of the pool. You must therefore carefully check, before purchasing your cleaning robot, that the connection pipe is long enough and adapted to the dimensions of your swimming pool.

The robot vacuums all the walls of the pool and sends the collected impurities to the pump through its connection pipe. Its operation is therefore ensured by a depression of the water which carries it and holds it along the wall. It should be noted that this hydraulic robot only vacuums and does not sweep, except for certain high-end models.

You must have a pump powerful enough to carry the cleaning robot and obtain a satisfactory result. If the flow rate of your hydraulic pump is too low, the robot will not be able to move. It is therefore imperative, before choosing among the robot models and making your purchase, to know the power of your suction pump.

The advantages of cleaning the pool wall using an electric robot

If you don’t have a pump powerful enough to add a hydraulic cleaning robot, look into the electric robot which is truly autonomous. Its mission: clean your swimming pool, quickly and efficiently. It plugs either into a mains socket, or runs on battery after charging on a simple electrical socket. It is programmed to move according to perfect logic and adapts depending on the model to all swimming pool configurations.

  • vertical walls;
  • bottom of the pool;
  • steps;
  • water line.

Putting the cleaning brushes of the electric pool robot into action

This electric robot is made up of brushes which remove impurities before they are sucked up by the robot. You will therefore choose the type of brush according to the coating of your swimming pool:

  • pin brushes for liner type coating ;
  • foam brushes for polyester and resin (shell) or tiled swimming pools.

The cleaning action can be programmed according to your needs. You can carry out regular maintenance or more extensive cleaning, after a prolonged absence for example. The electric robot can, for some of them, be configured remotely using a remote control or a phone application or, more simply, by directly selecting the cleaning cycle on the device itself.

As we have just seen, this electric robot, through the presence of suitable brushes, ensures perfect sweeping of the bottom of the pool and, depending on the model, the walls and the water line of the pool. It is obviously more expensive to purchase than a hydraulic robot vacuum cleaner, but the result has nothing to do with it in terms of quality.

Comparison between hydraulic robot and electric robot for cleaning swimming pool walls

To conclude, let’s make a comparison between hydraulic robots and electric robots. Each device obviously has advantages over the other. We can particularly focus on the purchase price of hydraulic devices which is much lower than an electric brush device.

The main advantages of the hydraulic robot

  • it is simple to install, as it does not need any electrical outlet to operate;
  • connects directly to the swimming pool filtration system via a broom socket located in the pool or to a skimmer;
  • it has a long lifespan since it is not connected to electricity. It has a hydraulic operating system and without electronics;
  • it has a very affordable price between 60 and 500 €. Be aware, however, that it costs around €300 for a fairly efficient device in terms of cleaning;
  • it is autonomous for the suction of waste.

The disadvantages of the hydraulic robot

  • only certain models clean the walls;
  • requires good pump power;
  • is not completely effective in corners;
  • only aspires.

The multiple advantages of the electric robot for cleaning a swimming pool

  • brush and vacuum  the bottom of the pool and, depending on the model, the walls and the water line;
  • adapts depending on the model to steps and height differences;
  • allows pump filtration to continue without loss of power;
  • has its movements controlled by advanced technology;
  • cleans vertical walls without problem for the models concerned;
  • performs quality cleaning, including in corners;
  • is completely autonomous.

The disadvantages of the electric robot

  • the price;
  • the cost of repair in the event of a problem.

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PTE Exam, Question Types And Online PTE Coaching Benefits



PTE Exam

When starting out with the PTE exam, the variety of question types and their codes can feel overwhelming. This guide is here to help newcomers get acquainted with each question type and offer useful tips for preparing effectively for the exam. It’s also helpful for those transitioning from the IELTS exam, providing insights and strategies for tackling the PTE successfully.

The Pearson Test of English (PTE) is a widely respected exam for assessing English language skills, accepted by numerous institutions worldwide. To do well in the PTE, it’s important to understand the different question types and how they contribute to your overall score. This guide breaks down the four groups of question types in the PTE, from most to least significant, explaining what each evaluates and offering tips for mastering them. With this knowledge, test-takers can develop targeted strategies to excel in each section and perform well overall on the PTE exam.

PTE Question types

Speaking and Writing:

Read aloud (Reading a text):

 In this question type, you are presented with a text of approximately 60 words and you are asked to read it. You can easily practice this question type with TED talk videos. As you know, transcripts are available in TED talk videos. Read the text first and then listen to the original. Record your voice as you read and pay attention to the differences between the original presentation and your own voice.

Repeat Sentence:

 In this question type, you are asked to repeat a sentence you heard. You can also repeat the sentences you hear by pausing and starting YouTube or TED talk videos. You do not need a separate PTE resource to study for this question type.

Describe Image:

 In this question, you are asked to talk about a visual such as a diagram, table, map, etc. In fact, it is the verbal version of the question type in IELTS Academic Writing Task 1. Then take the IELTS Writing Task 1 tables and talk about them. There are sample answers to IELTS questions on many sites. Compare your responses with the provided answers. While your spoken version may be shorter, reviewing sample answers will still offer insights into your performance.

Retell a Lecture:

 These types of questions appear in the TOEFL speaking section. You are expected to listen to a lecture and explain its outline. Therefore, you can use TOEFL questions for this question type. 

Answer Short Question:

 In this section, you need to answer the questions you hear in one word. My suggestion to you is to solve lots of trivia questions. If you search for ‘easy trivia questions’ on the internet, you can find various questions. This way you can improve your ability to understand the questions.

Summarize Written Text :

 This type of question can be a bit challenging for us. Because we are asked to write an original short summary without using the words in the text. In addition, we need to answer with a single sentence not exceeding 75 words. 

Essay (Composition Writing):

 A question type where you will not have any problems with the source. Since it is tested in every exam, the resources are quite abundant.

Reading Test

Multiple Choice Single Answer:

It involves a brief paragraph followed by multiple-choice questions related to that passage. You shouldn’t encounter any resource difficulties with this type of question.

 Multiple Choice Multiple Answer:

 Almost the same as the question type above, but this time the number of correct answers is more than one. There are such questions in the TOEFL reading section.

Re-order Paragraphs:

 In this section, we bring a paragraph with mixed sentences back to its original form. Similar questions are found in standardized English language tests like the GRE or GMAT. You can take short paragraphs and attempt to rearrange their sentences. Additionally, question types such as “select the sentence that does not belong” or “paragraph completion” questions in exams like the SAT or ACT can be helpful. Moreover, you can explore the insert sentence question type in the TOEFL Reading section.

Reading & Writing Fill in the Blanks:

 A format very similar to standardized English language tests like the TOEFL or IELTS cloze test question type. Again, there are plenty of resources available for practice.


Fill in the Blanks: 

You fill in the blanks in the text by dragging and dropping the adjacent words. If you search ‘fill in the blanks vocabulary exercises’ on the internet, you can find thousands of resources.

Listening Test

Summarize Spoken Text (Writing a summary of the speech):

 The spoken version of the summarized written text. You can work in the same way. Watch short TED talks and try to summarize them verbally.

Multiple Choice, Multiple Answers:

 The same format as in the reading section. There are similar questions in the TOEFL listening section. You can use the questions from the TOEFL exam.

Fill in the Blanks:

 Get TED talks video transcripts. Take out 5 random words from it. Start the video and try to write the words you extracted into the relevant space. You can also edit transcripts of listening exercises for other exams this way.

 Highlight Correct Summary:

 You are asked to find the sentence that best summarizes a piece you have listened to. You can take a look at TOEFL main idea questions. Also, what I said for paraphrasing also applies to this question type.

Multiple Choice Single Answer:

 You can study the IELTS multiple choice question type for this section. Also, be sure to check out the main idea questions in the TOEFL listening section.

 Select Missing Word:

 While listening to a text, the last part is beeped and you choose how the passage ends from the options. You can practice this type of question by doing a lot of listening and trying to guess the last words of some listening exercises without listening.

Highlight Incorrect Words:

 There are wrong words in a text and you detect and mark them while listening. Again, find a listening exercise and change some words. Prepare these first, then do them as an exercise when time passes and you forget the text completely.

 Write from Dictation:

 In this section, you write the sentences you hear. Again, it is a question type that you can easily study independently of PTE. Take a video or a listening exercise and listen, stopping sentence by sentence. Attempt to transcribe what you hear, then verify your responses by consulting the transcript.

 Online PTE Coaching Benefits


 When you opt for online PTE Academic coaching, you’re in control of your learning journey. You have the freedom to choose when and where to study, making the whole process more convenient and enjoyable. Unlike traditional offline classes with fixed hours, online learning lets you access study materials and take practice tests anytime, anywhere.

Personalized Attention:

 Remember those crowded classrooms where it was hard to get the teacher’s attention? With online PTE Academic tutoring, that’s a thing of the past. Students can now engage in one-on-one sessions with their teachers, discussing topics thoroughly and receiving valuable feedback. This personalized approach helps students pinpoint their mistakes and improve, rather than just going through the motions of test practice.

Real-Time Experience:

 Since the PTE Academic exam is computerized, practicing online makes perfect sense. Online coaching provides study materials and practice tests in a format identical to the actual exam, giving candidates a realistic experience. This familiarity with the test format boosts confidence and readiness for exam day.

Effective Time Management:

Effective time management is essential for success in the PTE Exam. Online portals offer free practice tests that allow candidates to assess and improve their time management skills. By practicing under timed conditions, applicants can identify areas for improvement and track their progress effectively.

Comprehensive Practice Materials:

 One of the greatest advantages of online coaching is access to all practice materials in one place. From section-wise practice tests to model answers and updated videos, everything is available online for efficient test preparation. This centralized approach streamlines the learning process and maximizes preparation effectiveness.

Mock Tests:

 Online PTE coaching includes mock tests that simulate the exam environment. Candidates benefit from live simulation and receive detailed feedback from coaches, helping them gauge their readiness for the actual exam. These mock tests tailor to different test components and provide immediate results, aiding in focused practice.

Expert Guidance:

 PTE specialists at coaching institutes offer comprehensive support to applicants. Tutors dedicate themselves to helping aspirants succeed in the PTE exam by introducing concepts and providing valuable tips for achieving the desired score.

Doubt-Solving Sessions:

 Online coaching platforms offer doubt-solving sessions where students can interact with instructors to clarify any queries. Whether through group discussions or one-on-one sessions, students can learn effective strategies for problem-solving and benefit from instructors’ expertise.


In conclusion, navigating the PTE exam can initially seem daunting due to the diverse range of question types and the need for comprehensive preparation. However, with the right strategies and resources, test-takers can effectively tackle each section of the exam and maximize their chances of success. Online PTE Academic coaching offers numerous advantages, including flexibility, personalized attention, real-time experience, effective time management, access to comprehensive practice materials, mock tests for simulation, expert guidance, and doubt-solving sessions. By leveraging these benefits and implementing targeted study plans, candidates can build confidence, improve their skills, and ultimately achieve their desired scores in the PTE exam. With dedication and strategic preparation, success in the PTE exam is within reach for all aspirants.

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What is Cardiac Asthma? All You Need To Know



cardiac asthma

Cardiac asthma is not asthma occurring in a person with heart disease. These are in fact respiratory manifestations of cardiac decompensation, suggestive of the symptoms of an asthma attack, occurring in people without a history of asthma or allergy. 

What is cardiac asthma?

Cardiac asthma is a type of asthma related to the heart. If the left side of the heart is weakened, it can no longer pump enough oxygen-rich blood into the circulation and thus into the organs and muscles. This in turn leads to blood congestion in the lungs and less resilience. The result: physical weakness (and the associated low resilience), tiredness and fatigue, shortness of breath, anxiety and coughing (also called “cardiac cough”).

When blood backs up in the lungs, the liquid blood components – such as water – are pressed into the lungs. This accumulation of water can cause pulmonary edema (also called water or congestive lung), which is accompanied by shortness of breath (dyspnea), rattling breathing and/or sputum for the affected person. The shortness of breath can be so severe that the patient becomes restless and is afraid of suffocating.

Differences between cardiac asthma and bronchial asthma

Bronchial asthma and cardiac asthma share a number of symptoms that can complicate a differential diagnosis.

These symptoms are:

  • Dyspnea (difficult and disturbed breathing);
  • Hissing, wheezing and whistling when breathing;
  • cough with foamy sputum;
  • cold sweating and cyanosis (bluish discoloration of the skin).

Symptoms of cardiac asthma

If the term cardiac asthma has been used in the past, it is because its symptoms are close to those of an asthma attack:

  • Breathing difficulties;
  • Shortness of breath;
  • Cough;
  • Expiratory wheezing;
  • Bronchial hyperreactivity;
  • Orthopnea (breathing difficulty when lying down, improved when sitting or standing).

They occur in a patient in left heart failure in which the heart tires due to an infection or excessive physical effort. The left ventricle then fails to expel all of the blood it receives into the aorta, which will therefore accumulate upstream in the left atrium and the pulmonary veins, causing lung edema , a reduction of the volume of circulating air and respiratory discomfort which manifests itself in symptoms similar to those of an asthma attack.

How is the diagnosis made? 

Breathing  suddenly becomes wheezy and associated with shortness of breath  in an elderly person who has never been asthmatic or allergic should immediately suggest left heart failure.  It is then necessary to consult quickly. The attending physician refers you to a cardiologist who , in addition to his questioning and  clinical examination, prescribes additional tests: 

  • blood tests, 
  • electrocardiogram, 
  • chest x-ray, 
  • electrocardiography. 

Treatment of cardiac asthma

The treatment of cardiac asthma is primarily based on that of heart failure which is very often the cause. The goal is to remove water from the lungs to prevent pulmonary edema ,” explains Dr. Assyag. Acute pulmonary edema is a therapeutic emergency that must be treated as quickly as possible by initiating a diuretic infusion.

Taking a bronchodilator by a patient believing they are the victim of an asthma attack when they are in fact experiencing cardiac decompensation can be fatal, continues the specialist. Bronchodilators speed up the heart and may worsen decompensation. But for cardiac asthma, it’s important to calm the heart, slow it down, and remove water from the lungs instead.

Living with cardiac asthma 

Here again, to live well with cardiac asthma, it is mainly a matter of monitoring your heart failure. Some precautions are therefore in order: 

  • Limit your fluid intake, you should not exceed 2L per day (food and ice cubes included); 
  • Adopt a low-salt diet; 
  • You must have a healthy, and balanced  diet;
  • Stop smoking and reduce your alcohol consumption; 
  • Have regular physical activity, adapted to your state of health, ask your doctor for advice. 

When should you see the doctor?

If shortness of breath, or wheezing persists, a doctor should clarify the cause. The same applies if you experience a racing heart, dizziness or a general feeling of weakness without physical exertion or overexertion. A visit to the doctor is particularly urgent if pathological, usually rattling breathing noises are noticed or if foamy sputum appears. If you feel like you are suffocating, you must call an emergency doctor immediately , who can diagnose cardiac asthma and, if necessary, treat it on site.

Immediate medical clarification is also necessary if you have existing heart failure or another disease of the cardiovascular system, metabolism or immune system. People who are overweight, smoke or consume excessive amounts of alcohol should speak to their family doctor if they have these symptoms.

If breathing difficulties or sputum occur as a result of overexertion or a flu-like infection, a medical examination is also necessary. Once diagnosed, cardiac asthma symptoms can be easily treated. In the case of chronic disorder, regular medical check up may be necessary.


How to treat severe asthma?

In severe asthma, treatment with anti-IgE antibodies will be administered, in cases where the IgE level is high. “This is a heavy treatment, but effective,” emphasizes the pulmonologist.

What is allergic asthma?

This asthma is a pathology linked to an allergic phenomenon, as its name suggests. “ There is an alteration of the immune response, which becomes excessive in the face of various antigens ,” specifies the pulmonologist. 

Can an asthma attack be serious?

Yes, an asthma attack can be fatal. A person can die from an untreated asthma attack; fortunately, many patients know how to react in the event of an attack. It is necessary to train patients and those around them to react adequately (take their medication and call the 15 in severe cases) ,” advises the doctor. 

What are the symptoms of an asthma attack?

  • A cough
  • Breathing difficulty
  • A whistling sound of breathing
  • Shortness of breath
  • Even asphyxiation

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